By J de Vries, Gary Toenniessen
Stronger meals safeguard, led by means of elevated productiveness between Africas many small-scale farmers, has been the purpose of important nationwide and overseas attempt in contemporary decades.This e-book grew out of a two-year exploration carried out by way of the foodstuff safeguard subject of The Rockefeller starting place targeting the opportunity of crop genetic development to give a contribution to meals protection between rural populations in Africa. It presents a severe evaluation of the ways that fresh breakthroughs in biotechnology, participatory plant breeding, and seed structures should be greatly hired in constructing and providing extra efficient crop kinds in Africas various agricultural environments.
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Extra resources for Securing the Harvest: Biotechnology, Breeding and Seed Systems for African Crops
For many self-pollinated food crops, national programme varieties are likely to continue to be the sole source of new varieties. Regional breeding networks, though often coordinated by international or regional entities, still depend on national programmes to propose and promote the release of promising materials. National programmes which maintain a strong focus on breeding of commercial crops such as maize can also serve as an important source of new varieties marketed by private seed companies, through licensing agreements.
In 1999, the USA provided approximately 58% of total food aid shipments worldwide. 84 million Mt of food aid to other countries. 14 million Mt, approximately 11%, went to Africa (USAID, 1999). The total value of this food was approximately $467 million. Food aid shipments to Africa from the European Union during the same period were approximately 140,000 t (Walter Middleton, personal communication). Some food aid (especially emergency food aid, which accounts for a third of Africa’s total from US sources) represents a key component of food security because it is channelled into areas and population groups with crucial needs.
In addition to photoperiod differences which frequently result in altered times of flowering and harvest, such introductions normally suffer from very high incidence of crop pests and diseases. Added, major differences in grain quality and plant type preferences preclude most temperate germplasm from being of direct use in Africa, although certain useful crop varietal traits have frequently been transferred to African ‘backgrounds’ via back-crossing and population improvement methods of breeding.