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By David Catling (auth.)

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_ ... nea " \ - • t ~r .... , _i ' ... { / ! Niger . '-;i'-',. l Distribution of deepwater rice in Asia and West Africa. American Wild Rice Before going any further, it is necessary to say something about another aquatic 'rice', Zizania aquatica L. and Z. , known as American wild rice, Indian wild rice or manomin. These should not be confused with the Oryza deepwater rices and wild rices. The two Zizania species are endemic to North America from Lake Winnipeg to the Gulf of Mexico and eastwards from the Rockies to the Atlantic coast (Chambliss, 1940; Dore, 1969).

In general, Indian farmers pay less attention to land preparation and weed control, mean grain yields are probably lower, and the cropping intensity is less. The cultivation practices and rice crops of Assam are closest to those of Bangladesh, although the cropping intensity is much lower and the weed problem is more severe. In West Bengal fertilizer use is higher, apparendy more insecticide is used and herbicides are occasionally sprayed, and in two-thirds of the fields deepwater rice is followed by either a rabi crop or boro rice.

Rats and hispa beetle can be controlled by conventional measures, and stem nematode may soon be checked with plant resistance, but as yet no feasible control method is available for the yellow stem borer. The use of pesticides in deeply flooded fields is beset with the obvious problems of application method, environmental toxicity and cost-effectiveness. Although weed competition is widely regarded as an important production constraint, few data are available to support this assertion. Grasses such as Echinochloa and sedges such as Cyperus are sometimes major weeds before flooding.

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