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By L. Gattermann


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This is obviously necessary even when we wish a reaction to take place in alcoholic solution at 100° or in aqueous solution at about 120°. Thus the aim is entirely to increase the temperature of the reaction; the accompanying increase in pressure has no effect on the reaction velocity, for as a rule it is unaccompanied by any significant change in the concentration. Since solutions are most frequently heated in sealed tubes in which the vapour pressure of the solvent determines the pressure, it is necessary to reckon with quite considerable pressures at temperatures which are appreciably above 100°.

B. g. sulphur) or decomposes with separation of black charcoal when heated on platinum foil, it is to be regarded as organic. The tests for carbon and hydrogen can be carried out simultaneously as follows : Mix a dry sample of the substance with several times its volume offineignited copper oxide in a small test tube and cover the mixture with a little more oxide. Stopper the test tube with a cork carrying a tube bent at right angles and heat strongly. If the gases evolved produce turbidity in clear baryta water (CO2), the substance contains carbon, while the appearance of small drops of water in the upper part of the tube indicates the presence of hydrogen.

Accordingly, if the vapour pressure curve of a substance not miscible with water is known, it is easy to calculate approximately its degree of volatility with steam. The calculation is approximate only because the condition of mutual insolubility is hardly ever fulfilled. On steam distillation under reduced pressure see p. 278. EVAPORATION OF SOLVENTS Since, during preparative organic work, substances have very often to be isolated from dilute solution, this operation is one of the commonest. Ether is distilled from the steam or water bath through 30 EVAPOKATION OF SOLVENTS a downward condenser (preferably a coil condenser) and is used again, possibly after purification.

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