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By James Steel, Peter Jordan, Ethan Cochrane (Editors)

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Additional info for Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Evolutionary Approaches (Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society series B)

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Doi:10. 1038/nature05634) Blower, S. M. & Dowlatabadi, H. 1994 Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of complex-models of disease transmission—an HIV model as an example. Int. Stat. Rev. 62, 229 –243. , Eshleman, J. & Ortolani, A. 2001 A study of East African kinship and marriage using phylogenetically controlled comparison. Am. Anthropol. 103, 1059–1082. 2001. , Nunn, C. L. & Towner, M. C. 2006 Macroevolutionary studies of cultural trait transmission. Evol. Anthropol. 15, 52–64. , Durham, W. H.

Anthropol. 15, 52–64. , Durham, W. H. & Richerson, P. J. 1997 Are cultural phylogenies possible? In Human by nature: between biology and the social sciences (eds P. Weingart, S. D. Mitchell, P. J. Richerson & S. Maasen), pp. 355 –386. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Burton, M. L. & White, D. R. 1984 Sexual division of labor in agriculture. Am. Anthropol. 86, 568 –583. (doi:10. , Shennan, S. J. & Tehrani, J. J. 2006 Branching, blending, and the evolution of cultural similarities and differences among human populations.

All that can be done is to compare values with those obtained from biological traits or systems that have better understood properties (Collard et al. 2006). In summary, we can imagine scenarios where a low CI occurs in the absence of horizontal transmission, and other scenarios where a high CI occurs with high levels of horizontal transmission. e. the independent innovation of cultural traits, rather than horizontal transmission, owing to high rates of cultural evolution. A high CI might reflect lower rates of evolution, for example if the number of societies chosen is small and relatively homogeneous with respect to the traits in question.

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