By Jean-Paul Sartre
A idea of historical past, an research of sophistication fight and a philosophy of motion, this paintings is an highbrow masterpiece of the 20th century, republished in volumes and brought via Fredric Jameson. on the top of the Algerian conflict, Jean-Paul Sartre launched into a basic reappraisal of his philosophical and political proposal. the outcome used to be the Critique of Dialectical Reason, an highbrow masterpiece of the 20 th century, now republished with an incredible unique creation through Fredric Jameson.
right here, Sartre started a brand new idea of historical past that he believed used to be worthy for postwar Marxism. His important difficulty was once the constitution of sophistication fight and the destiny of the mass events of renowned riot, from the French Revolution on the finish of the eighteenth century to the Russian and chinese language revolutions within the 20th.
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Extra info for Critique of Dialectical Reason, Volume 2
The fut ure boxer i s already se lected by the materi al circum stance s of h i s own l i fe : i f he agree s to become a pro , it i s because he w an ts to s truggle free from his clas s ; and the reason why he wants to struggle free from h i s c l as s i s that h i s fam ily situation, the events of h is chi l dhood, have not all owed h im to integrate him self i nto i t . On the other hand, however, s ince birth h e has s uffered th e v iolence of oppre s s ion a nd exploitation , which has been interiori zed i n him as in h i s comrade s .
For the spectators hav e an ambiguous attitude . To li sten to them, they g o to see ' fi ne sport ' , ' good box ing ' ; they go to appreciate human c ourage , ski l l , inte l l igence , etc . And th at i s tru e . B ut the se qual itie s forms of technical and moral apprec i ation would not e v en have an y meaning , i f they were not prov oked by the reali ty of a dangerous struggl e . I t i s one thing to be moved by the imaginary representation of courage in the theatre ; [quite another] 8 to di scover courage gradual l y , w ithin an event w h ich i s actual l y tak i ng place a n d whose reality strikes you first.
Every non-spectator i s like a paler and paler reproduction of the sole living and practic al real it y : each spec tator as a producer and s upport of the fi ght . So each spectator gathers and fuses within himself these shadow s ; he total izes and com a max imum pre sses the max im um amount of practice and e xperience that w i l l be decompres sed into pal e abstract knowledge and at once lose its ontological status . B ut, for thi s very reason , there can be no ontological or logi c al preci sely difference between totali zation and incarn ation , e xcept that totalization operates only through the because it is concrete and real lim itati ons it imposes.