By Sara McDowell, Máire Braniff (auth.)
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Additional resources for Commemoration as Conflict: Space, Memory and Identity in Peace Processes
However, this neglects that the term spoiler is problematic as it lends to the idea that there are some parties in a peace process that will never compromise or negotiate with limited opportunity for advancement or transformation of positions. There are always, however, warring parties who will engage in spoiler behaviour as opposed to being in complete opposition of any compromise whatsoever. They recommend moving away from labels during mediation believing they can do more damage than good. Ending violence but consolidating division?
When a process is enforced or terms of an agreement is negotiated without popular consensus, contestation can emerge. Without such support, consolidation, he believes, is virtually impossible. The Promise of Peace 35 One of the greatest risks that face peace-makers emanates from spoilers (Stedman 1997) – those leaders or parties which stand to lose from settlements. Leaders, he suggests, put themselves at risk by simply signing up to an agreement. Conflict can arise from disenchanted supporters who believe their interests or values have been shelved or from hostile adversaries who take advantage of the settlement and from excluded groups who seek to alter or destroy it (Stedman 1997).
Scholarship has focused on the stories and analysis of agreements that have failed to engender peace fuelling a dominant discourse of miscarried agreements (DeRouen and Bercovitch 2008; Licklider 1995; Luttwak 1999). If it is the case that the implementation of peace is overly precarious and tentative, it is even more essential to reflect upon cases where a relapse of violence has been avoided. , signing a just and fair agreement)’. Is an agreement and implementation a success if after a period of time fatalities remain below a certain threshold?