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By Xiaoqun Xu

Xiaoqun Xu makes a compelling and unique contribution to the learn of China's modernization with this learn of the increase institutions in Republican China, of their birthplace of Shanghai, and in their political and socio-cultural milieus. Xu addresses a significant factor in China stories, the connection among country and society, and proposes an alternative choice to the Western-derived thought of civil society. This e-book illuminates the multidimensional complexity of modernization and nationalism in twentieth-century China, and offers a concrete case for comparative reports of professionalization and sophistication formation throughout cultures.

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Additional resources for Chinese Professionals and the Republican State: The Rise of Professional Associations in Shanghai, 1912-1937 (Cambridge Modern China Series)

Example text

By whatever standards one may make the cut, a large portion of the people occupying those positions would qualify as professional employees – some being self-employed professionals – or as white-collar workers who 57. 59. 61. 62. 239. 58. 325–26. 351. 60. CWR, 48,7 (4/13/1929):278. 81. 406. 36 Professions in Early-Twentieth-Century Shanghai were at the lower end of the urban middle class and blended into the working class. From the preceding survey, it is clear that both Chinese and foreign entrepreneurs were involved in training and developing the work force of professional employees and white-collar workers vital to Shanghai’s modernization.

A consideration of the relationship between ziyou zhiye zhe and the state must take into account the connections and differences between ziyou zhiye zhe and other social groups both within and outside the urban middle class. Bearing in mind these points, the study now turns to the development of law, medicine, and journalism. 65. 56–58. 38 Professions in Early-Twentieth-Century Shanghai LAW, MEDICINE, AND JOURNALISM IN SHANGHAI Judicial System Traditional China knew no independent judicial system, perhaps with the exception of the central government.

The overall political culture, social formation, and international environment during the period did not favor a full development of Chinese professionals or other groups in urban society as independent and effective political forces vis-à-vis the state. It becomes clear by now that a “civil society” analytical framework would not fully account for all the complexity manifested in the history of Republican Shanghai in general and of Chinese professionals in particular. The rise of professional associations and other urban public organizations in the Republican era signified neither the decline of state power nor the growth of an autonomous civil society.

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