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Under conditions of resting potential, the NMDA receptor is blocked by magnesium; the magnesium blockade is lifted by depolarization (through AMPA receptors). This temporal shift in activities of the AMPA and NMDA receptors results in a graduated response of the postsynaptic neurons to the neurotransmitter glutamate. Inhibitory GABA and glycine receptors. GABA is the most common inhibitory transmitter in the brain, and glycine in the spinal cord. Both receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that cause the influx of chloride ions when activated.

Attached to the cytoplasmic side of the membranes are the protein-synthesizing ribosomes (BC7). To maintain the long axon (up to 1 m long), it is essential that the cell has an extremely high rate of protein synthesis (structural metabolism). Ribosomefree membranes form the agranular or smooth endoplasmic reticulum (C8). The rough endoplasmic reticulum communicates with the perinuclear space (BC9) and with the marginal cisternae (A10) below the cell surface. Marginal cisternae are often found at sites where boutons or glial cell processes are attached.

The axon gives off branches (axon collaterals) (A9) and finally ramifies in the terminal area (A10) to end with small end-feet (axon terminals, or boutons) on nerve cells or muscle cells. The bouton forms a synapse with the surface membrane of the next cell in line; it is here that impulse transmission to the other cell takes place. Depending on the number of processes, we distinguish between unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar neurons. Most neurons are multi- Kahle, Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol.

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