By Michele Aresta, Angela Dibenedetto, Franck Dumeignil
This booklet presents an creation to the elemental technological know-how and applied sciences for the conversion of biomass (terrestrial and aquatic) into chemical compounds and fuels, in addition to an outline of strategies within the box. the complete price chain for changing uncooked fabrics into platform molecules and their transformation into ultimate items are offered intimately. either cellulosic and oleaginous biomass are thought of. The publication comprises contributions via either educational scientists and commercial technologists in order that every one subject combines cutting-edge clinical wisdom with leading edge applied sciences appropriate to chemical industries. chosen issues contain: Refinery of the longer term: feedstock, procedures, items The terrestrial and aquatic biomass creation and houses Chemical applied sciences and biotechnologies for the conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignine, algae, residual biomass Thermal, catalytic and enzymatic conversion of biomass creation of chemical compounds, polymeric fabrics, fuels (biogas, biodiesel, bioethanol, biohydrogen) coverage points of biomass product chains LCA utilized to the vigorous, financial and environmental evaluate of the creation of fuels from biomass: ethanol, biooil and biodiesel, biogas, biohydrogen
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Additional info for Biorefinery : from biomass to chemicals and fuels
As a very strategic point, it has been decided after extensive analysis that EuroBioRef bioreﬁneries should deﬁnitely be chemicals/materials-driven, meaning that the best part of the crops are being used to make high-value chemicals and products and that the residues are being used to produce energy, either consumed on-site or being exported under various forms. This is a rethinking of commonly admitted bioreﬁneries concepts that are strongly biofuels-driven. In the various test ﬁelds in Poland, Greece, and Madagascar, lignocellulosic plants (willow, giant reed, miscanthus, switchgrass, cardoon) and oil crops (castor, crambe, safﬂower, lunaria, jatropha, as well as sunﬂower and rapeseed for comparison) were grown according to smart rotation strategies, and all of them have already been harvested for feasibility evaluations and, when relevant, for further downstream applications in the bioreﬁnery.
3). 2 Competition Number of years of consumption based on proven reserves 120 100 Total World OECD Non-OECD European Union Former Soviet Union 80 60 40 20 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Year 2000 2005 2010 2015 Fig. 2: Petroleum reserves expressed as years of consumption. com/statisticalreview. 00 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Year Fig. 3: Proﬁtability of an Iowa dry-mill ethanol plant versus petroleum price. Data show that proﬁtability is not increasing at high petroleum prices. 4 22 Η 2 Reﬁnery of the future: feedstock, processes, products In the past 6–10 years, most of the major crops have been correlated with the price of crude oil, although in this case it is not possible to claim that there is a direct massive use of biomass in fuel applications.
2/kg Itaconic Resins, synthetic ﬁber 25 2 Reﬁnery of the future: feedstock, processes, products Tab. 4: Fermentation products. ) Starch industry, glucose industry, soaps, detergents Polysaccharides Xanthan gum 30 30 kt Vitamins (C, B2, B12) Vitamin C (comb. 6 Processing units Ethanol Η 37 38 Η 2 Reﬁnery of the future: feedstock, processes, products However only ethanol has seen a signiﬁcant growth over the past 10 years. Antibiotic, amino acid, organic acid, and vitamin growth is rather limited except for lactic acid, which is developing as polylactic acid.