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By Malyn Newitt

A background of Portuguese in a foreign country enlargement 1400-1668 provides an obtainable survey of the way the Portuguese grew to become so influential in this interval and the way Portuguese settlements have been based in parts as faraway as Asia, Africa and South America.

Malyn Newitt examines how the information and associations of a past due medieval society have been deployed to assist enlargement into Africa and the Atlantic islands, in addition to how, via contention with Castile, this grew right into a around the world business. eventually, he considers how resilient the Portuguese in another country groups have been, surviving wars and usual failures, and keeping off assaults via the extra seriously armed English and Dutch invaders till good into the 1600s.

Including a close bibliography and thesaurus, A heritage of Portuguese out of the country enlargement 1400-1668 is a useful textbook for all these learning this interesting interval of ecu expansion

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44 However, a knighthood was not just a military honour. It could carry with it membership of one of the Military Orders with their vast corporate wealth and the expectation of being rewarded with the grant of a commandery, town or castle in the control of the knights. Behind the language of chivalry and honour was the reality of what military activity meant in practice. War was expected to pay for itself and to provide the major pathway to a prosperous career. Lack of resources at the disposal of the Crown had always meant that contias and the army’s pay were met from the proceeds of confiscations, ransoms or plunder.

71 It is true that the trade that began during these years was sufficiently important for Dom Pedro, who was concerned for the commercial interests of the port cities which provided much of his political support, to take steps to protect the commerce and fend off the sort of chaotic free-for-all that was continuing in the Canary Islands. The measures he took were successful in reducing direct foreign competition while at the same time providing a means by which people other than Portuguese could invest in trading voyages and take a share in the profits.

Madeira, for example, was divided into two capitanias, which were granted to members of Henrique’s household, and it was they who were given the responsibility for organising the settlement and for the creation of a social infrastructure. The ecclesiastical privileges—the right to collect tithes, the control of benefices, and the granting of land to the church or to religious orders—was bestowed on the Order of Christ, of which Henrique had already been made governor. The role of the royal family in early expansion It is clear that the king’s sons took a great deal of interest in the settlement of the islands but it is important to see this interest in a wider social context.

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